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国土资源遥感  2019, Vol. 31 Issue (2): 131-139    DOI: 10.6046/gtzyyg.2019.02.19
  技术应用 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
黄土高原典型区土壤保持服务效应研究
周日平
中煤地质集团北京大地高科地质勘查有限公司,北京 100040
Assessing the soil erosion control service in the typical area of Loess Plateau
Riping ZHOU
Beijing Dadi High-Tech Geology Exploration Co., Ltd., China Coal Geology Group, Beijing 100040, China
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摘要 

黄土高原生态屏障区是我国“两屏三带”的重要组成部分,不仅对当地居民具有重要的屏障作用,同时也对黄河中下游具有重要的影响。本研究以土壤侵蚀量为评估指标,应用修正的通用土壤流失方程,利用2000—2010年间土地覆被、气象站点和泥沙站点等多源数据,定量评估了黄土高原生态屏障区退耕还林还草生态工程的土壤保持效应。结果表明,2000—2010年间,尽管黄土高原降雨量明显增多,降雨侵蚀力在增强,但研究区以退耕还草为主,退耕还草面积达到3 287.01 km 2,研究区植被覆盖在以1.29%/a速率递增; 土壤侵蚀状况发生明显改善,土壤侵蚀模数由2000年的6 579.55 t·km -2·a -1降低到了2010年的1 986.66 t·km -2·a -1,土壤侵蚀等级由剧烈侵蚀向微度侵蚀转变,侵蚀等级在逐渐降低,低覆盖度-烈度土壤侵蚀面积在大幅度降低,而高覆盖度-微度土壤侵蚀类型面积在大幅度提升; 并且流域土壤侵蚀强度与相关站点含沙量和输沙量呈正相关,黄土高原生态屏障效应在不断加强。该研究对加强生态安全格局建设,促进我国生态文明建设具有一定的借鉴意义。

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周日平
关键词 黄土高原土壤保持生态系统服务    
Abstract

The Loess Plateau ecological barrier area is an important part of the “ two screens and three belts” in China. It not only has an important barrier effect on local residents, but also has an important impact on the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. This paper is based on the typical area in Loess Plateau as the research object, takes the soil conservation quantity as the evaluation index and uses the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) as the evaluation method. Meanwhile, It uses the data of land use/cover change, meteorological observation, MODIS data and some other data to assess the effect function of the grain for green and the conservation of soil and water of the typical area in Loess Plateau from 2000 to 2010. The results showed that the land use/cover type changed sharply in the study area in nearly 10 years. A large number of arable land became the forest and grassland, the vegetation coverage had increased apparently and the service function of the conservation of soil and water rose linearly. The soil erosion modulus was close to 1 986.66 t·km -2·a -1 in 2010. These data show that the ecological environment has improved and the function of the conservation of soil and water have enhanced significantly since the government implemented the grain for green.

Key wordsLoess Plateau    soil conservation    ecosystem services
收稿日期: 2018-12-18      出版日期: 2019-05-23
ZTFLH:  TP79  
基金资助:陕西省自然科学基金项目“基于分布式模型的流域尺度土地覆被变化的土壤侵蚀效应研究”(2018JM4016);陕西省土地整治重点实验室开放基金项目“黄土高原退化土地的生态恢复遥感监测与评估”共同资助(2018-ZD01)
作者简介: 周日平(1965-),女,高级工程师,主要从事遥感生态环境方面的科研工作。Email: zhou_rp@sina.com。
引用本文:   
周日平. 黄土高原典型区土壤保持服务效应研究[J]. 国土资源遥感, 2019, 31(2): 131-139.
Riping ZHOU. Assessing the soil erosion control service in the typical area of Loess Plateau. Remote Sensing for Land & Resources, 2019, 31(2): 131-139.
链接本文:  
http://www.gtzyyg.com/CN/10.6046/gtzyyg.2019.02.19      或      http://www.gtzyyg.com/CN/Y2019/V31/I2/131
Fig.1  黄土高原生态屏障区研究范围
Fig.2  2000—2010年植被覆盖度变化
侵蚀强度 2000年 2005年 2010年 2000—2010变化率
微度 50.57 67.12 72.54 43.44
轻度 6.26 6.84 6.62 5.75
中度 10.09 9.60 8.77 -13.08
强度 7.85 6.01 5.08 -35.29
极强 10.84 6.11 4.64 -57.20
剧烈 14.39 4.31 2.35 -83.67
Tab.1  2000—2010年黄土高原生态屏障区土壤侵蚀强度面积百分比变化
年份 侵蚀
强度
2005年
微度 轻度 中度 强度 极强 剧烈
2000年 微度 65.46 9.07 11.80 6.22 5.07 2.36
轻度 60.84 10.02 13.22 7.13 6.07 2.73
中度 54.21 11.16 15.34 8.66 7.30 3.32
强度 47.01 11.99 17.52 10.40 8.89 4.18
极强 40.45 12.41 19.12 11.93 10.87 5.22
剧烈 32.33 11.58 19.10 13.38 14.21 9.39
Tab.2  2000—2005年黄土高原生态屏障区土壤侵蚀强度转移矩阵
年份 侵蚀
强度
2010年
微度 轻度 中度 强度 极强 剧烈
2005年 微度 77.32 10.95 7.63 2.28 1.39 0.44
轻度 47.31 21.30 21.97 6.13 2.64 0.65
中度 29.14 16.96 30.78 14.60 7.07 1.45
强度 17.06 10.36 27.54 23.67 17.30 4.06
极强 10.35 5.79 18.75 22.81 30.48 11.82
剧烈 4.39 2.36 7.90 12.33 31.90 41.12
Tab.3  2005—2010年黄土高原生态屏障区土壤侵蚀强度转移矩阵
Fig.3  2000—2010年黄土高原生态屏障区不同植被覆盖度土壤侵蚀强度变化百分比
区域 类型 2000年 2001年 2002年 2003年 2004年 2005年 2006年 2007年 2008年 2009年 2010年
退耕还草 剧烈 150.29 71.55 81.56 122.59 28.48 32.63 27.56 27.00 20.96 14.24 16.77
极强 98.74 67.37 88.40 93.84 49.60 52.36 56.96 47.59 43.98 32.68 39.45
重度 63.51 55.31 69.04 66.40 51.17 54.31 58.19 51.22 47.88 37.47 44.24
中度 71.20 79.41 88.04 81.94 82.38 85.28 91.81 86.30 81.14 70.48 76.76
轻度 38.06 51.84 51.42 43.98 58.72 60.21 62.81 61.08 59.42 56.41 58.44
微度 103.83 200.75 148.75 118.46 256.86 242.42 229.88 254.01 273.83 315.93 291.05
退耕还林 剧烈 5.02 0.63 2.33 2.49 0.08 0.20 0.11 0.11 0 0.02 0.04
极强 4.23 1.04 3.22 3.24 0.55 0.72 0.37 0.26 0.12 0.05 0.07
重度 3.41 1.62 2.68 2.93 0.86 1.08 0.70 0.51 0.21 0.16 0.13
中度 4.08 2.86 4.56 4.27 2.21 2.64 1.73 1.59 0.64 0.73 0.51
轻度 2.58 2.19 2.90 2.82 2.07 2.13 1.69 1.85 0.83 0.82 0.53
微度 15.06 26.24 18.87 18.81 28.79 27.79 29.96 30.22 32.76 32.78 33.08
草地转林地 剧烈 20.57 6.79 9.31 12.55 2.37 3.06 1.34 1.91 1.02 0.57 0.68
极强 15.89 6.94 11.03 11.46 4.22 4.66 3.43 3.27 2.23 1.36 1.94
重度 11.10 6.49 9.35 10.04 5.12 5.90 4.79 4.03 3.02 2.14 2.99
中度 15.70 11.13 15.10 15.02 10.04 11.16 9.97 7.52 6.44 5.45 6.09
轻度 9.95 8.54 9.40 10.48 8.13 8.96 9.05 6.55 5.47 4.83 5.63
微度 46.45 79.09 64.77 59.41 89.07 85.21 90.38 95.65 100.78 104.61 102.32
Tab.4  2000—2010年黄土高原退耕还林还草区域土壤侵蚀强度面积统计
Fig.4  2000—2010年子流域土壤侵蚀量与含沙量对比
Fig.5  2000—2010年子流域土壤侵蚀量与输沙量对比
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