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Remote Sensing for Natural Resources    2023, Vol. 35 Issue (1) : 213-221     DOI: 10.6046/zrzyyg.2021450
A forecasting method for water table depths in areas with power transmission lines based on remote sensing and deep learning models
ZHANG Ke1,2,3(), ZHANG Gengsheng1,2, WANG Ning4(), WEN Jing4, LI Yu1,2, YANG Jun5
1. State Grid Electric Power Research Institute, Hefei 230088, China
2. Anhui NARI Jiyuan Electric Power System Tech Co., Ltd, Hefei 230088, China
3. University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230088, China
4. China Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing Center for Natural Resources, Beijing 100083, China
5. State Grid Hangzhou Power Supply Company, Zhejiang Electric Power Co.,Ltd.,Hangzhou 310000, China
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Areas with power transmission lines have been frequently struck by flood disasters in recent years. Therefore, forecasting the water table depths in these areas is critical to the safety of these areas. This study forecasted the water table depth using remote sensing satellite products and observed meteorological and hydrological data. Based on the meteorological and hydrological data, this study forecast the daily and monthly water table depths using the long short-term memory (LSTM), gated recurrent unit (GRU), long short-term memory-seq2seq (LSTM-S2S), and feedforward neural network (FFNN) models. The results indicate that the LSTM-S2S and FFNN models delivered the best and the worst performances, respectively. Meanwhile, the LSTM, GRU, and LSTM-S2S models performed well in forecasting both daily and monthly water table depths, with their forecasts of daily water table depths having a higher coefficient of determination (R2) and a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE) than those of monthly water table depths. Therefore, the method presented in this study can be used to forecast the future daily and monthly water table depths in areas with power transmission lines.

Keywords deep learning model      GRU      LSTM-S2S      LSTM      water table depth     
ZTFLH:  TP79  
Issue Date: 20 March 2023
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Gengsheng ZHANG
Jing WEN
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Ke ZHANG,Gengsheng ZHANG,Ning WANG, et al. A forecasting method for water table depths in areas with power transmission lines based on remote sensing and deep learning models[J]. Remote Sensing for Natural Resources, 2023, 35(1): 213-221.
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Fig.1  Study area
Fig.2  RNN network
Fig.3  LSTM network
Fig.4  LSTM-S2S network
Fig.5  Sensitive analysis on daily measured and simulated water table depth using the proposed models: FFNN, LSTM,GRU, LSTM-S2S
Fig.6  Comparison of daily measured and simulated water table depth using the proposed models
模型 迭代
丢弃率 学习率 均方根
LSTM-S2S 14 000 0.3 0.001 0.03 0.92 0.92 16.07
LSTM 18 000 0.3 0.001 0.05 0.89 0.85 16.80
GRU 1 800 0.5 0.01 0.05 0.85 0.84 19.34
FFNN 10 000 0.5 0.001 0.11 0.94 0.14 128.33
Tab.1  Best performance statistics in different models
Fig.7  Comparison of monthly measured and simulated water table depth using the proposed models
模型 均方根误差 决定系数 效率系数 损失
LSTM 1.04 0.65 0.60 15.21
GRU 0.83 0.75 0.74 23.58
LSTM-S2S 0.89 0.71 0.71 4.70
Tab.2  Performance statistics of monthly data in LSTM, GRU, and LSTM-S2S models
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