Funded by Ministry of Land and Resources of China, China Geological Survey and National High Technology Research and
Development Program of China (National 863 Program), the Hyperspectral Research Group of China Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote
Sensing Center for Land and Resources (AGRS) has made remarkable scientific achievements in hyperspectral mineral identification
and mineral mapping since the implementation of the ‘Ninth Five-Year Plan’. These achievements include: (1) the analysis of
features of rock and mineral spectra and influencing factors, (2) mineral identification, abundance estimation and component
derivation, (3) multispectral and hyperspectral data processing and mineral mapping in mid-thermal infrared spectral region, (4)
geological application model, working methods and technical processes, and technology systematic architecture of hyperspectral
mineral mapping, and (5) applications of mineral mapping in such fields as regional mineral survey, geological exploration,
metallogenic and prospecting modeling, plant geochemical detection, mining environmental monitoring, and lunar and planetary
exploration. These achievements are reviewed and summarized in this paper, and the development tendency and research orientations
in hyperspectral mineral mapping are also discussed.
The paper has reviewed the technological progress of remote sensing for uranium geology in Beijing Research Institute
of Uranium Geology (BRIUG)，discussed scientific and technological progress of uranium geology based on remote sensing technique
and probed into the sustainable development of remote sensing for uranium geology with the purpose of making remote sensing play
an increasingly important role in uranium geology in future.
The application of high spatial resolution remote sensing images to the study of LUCC has promoted the further
development of remote sensing classification techniques in three aspects, namely classification object, classification features
and classifiers. This paper gives a review of the new progress, describes the representative methods, analyzes characteristics of
various methods, and summarizes the progress in the study of remote sensing classification.
For the purpose of improving the precision of SAR interferometric measurement, the registration of InSAR complex images
is one of the key technologies involved in SAR interferometry. For the airborne dual-antenna InSAR system, the accurate terrain
elevation measurement needs to be ensured by the accurate interferometric phase; therefore, the registration of sub-pixel complex
images is very important. In order to improve the registration precision and computational speed of airborne dual-antenna
interferometric SAR complex images, the authors employed the methods of complex correlation fine registration based FFT and over
-sampling image fine registration in this study. Chinese airborne dual-antenna InSAR complex images were chosen to perform the
above-mentioned algorithms; meanwhile, interferogram was generated and the coherence of registered images was analyzed．The
results show that both algorithms are feasible and robust．However, through analyzing registration precision and computational
speed of the two algorithms, the authors have reached the conclusion that the complex correlation fine registration based FFT
method is more accurate, and its computation efficiency is higher. The practical application also proves that the complex
correlation fine registration based FFT method is applicable and effective.
This paper puts forwards a new kind of technical approach-Band Sequence Structure Analysis (BSSA) by using the
hyperspectral data as the band-series data which have almost continuous sub-band. This new technical approach includes such means
as band sequence histogram, left (right) skew parameter analysis, relevant (similar) matrix and regression skew analysis. In this
paper, the BSSA of hyperspectral data is applied to such fields as statistical character analysis and quality evaluation,
evaluation of potentiality of alteration information, selection of characteristic bands and extraction of mineral alteration
information. The result of the application demonstrates the scientific value and practicality of the new technical idea.
Lack of automaticity and ineffective elimination of seam line exist in the present remote sensing image mosaic. Aimed
at solving these problems, this paper has improved the existing mosaic technology by using valid area. The valid area is obtained
using the automatic tracing method, based on which mosaic of multi remote sensing images is carried out. First, at the geometric
splicing stage, primitive rectangle image participation is replaced by the valid area to carry out splicing. Second, the seam
line is determined using the valid area of the two images, and is eliminated using the whole tone adjustment and the overlapping
area weighting. Finally, in the multi-image mosaic process, the valid area of the resultant image is obtained by collage of the
valid area of two original images. Through the mosaic experiment on two groups of multi remote sensing images, it is concluded
that this technical flow can implement completely the automatic image dodging, and the overall tone is consistent without obvious
seam line in the resultant images.
Through differential interferometry of ascending and descending orbit ASAR data, the authors obtained the Double-LOS
coseismic deformation fields of Gaize earthquake in Tibet. A characteristic analysis of coseismic deformation field indicates
that the Ms 6.9 mainshock and Ms 6.0 aftershock both showed the typical model of normal fault and successively gave birth to east
and west normal faulted fracture zones with different sizes probably at depth, trending NE and dipping NW, with the formation of
east and west subsiding centers on the northwest plate. From the incising of interferometric stripes, it can be judged that the
east and west subsiding centers are controlled respectively by January 9, 2008 Ms 6.9 mainshock and January 16, 2008 Ms 6.0
aftershock. The Ms 6.9 mainshock shaped the basic pattern of subsiding in the northwest plate and uplifting in the southeast
plate. And the Ms 6.0 aftershock caused the further subsidence of the epicenter and the western part of the northwest plate;
therefore, the subsidence value of the west subsiding center is larger than that of the east subsiding center. The obtaining of
coseismic deformation fields of ascending-descending orbits has provided the better restriction and information for further
hypocenter mechanism simulation and 3-D deformation field calculation.
In view of characteristics of high-resolution satellite images, this paper has designed a set of technological schemes
for semiautomatic rapid and easy extraction of building 2-D rooftop information. Firstly image preprocessing was performed by
using the Maximum Homogeneity Neighbor Filter Method. Then Differential Morphological Profile Method was employed which is based
on the reconstruction of classical morphological algorithms such as erosion, dilation as well as open and close operators. Some
preliminary improvements were made in choosing the step of structure operator. The image after-processing was made based on the
combination of Label Region and Threshold Segmentation. Finally the QuickBird image was chosen which covered the campus of
Beijing Normal University as the study area because of its dense man-made buildings. The result shows that this set of
technological schemes not only has a good extraction effect for regular buildings, but also can extract the outline of the
complex building effectively.
The difficulties in separating cloud-fog from surface features in different time zones were studied in this paper.
Based on the principle of visual interpretation, the authors have developed an adaptive threshold algorithm for separating cloud
-fog from surface features. The parameters were determined based on MODIS data, and the stability, feasibility and precision of
this algorithm were verified based on validation data. According to the results, this algorithm has strong stability and
feasibility and can be performed automatically.
With the Yangtze River delta as the study area, this paper quantitatively analyzed the temporal responses of land
surface temperature annual variability to climate factors based on MODIS LST products and meteorological observation data. First,
the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm was employed to distill LST harmonics (periodical fluctuation characters)
and reconstruct cloud-free LST time-series. The solar radiation of the study area was calculated and its impact on LST inter-
annual was investigated by time lag cross-correlation analysis. The high correlation coefficient (mean coefficient is 0.991 6)
indicates the sensitivity of LST seasonal variations to solar radiance, and lag days show that the peak time of LST is about 20
days later than solar radiance. The analysis between the inter-annual variations of land surface temperature and air temperature
shows that air temperature has significant correlations with LST and the air temperature delays about 5 days relative to LST
Remote sensing technology has found a wide range of applications in the new round of national island investigation. On
account of the deficiency of visual interpretation，the object-oriented approach was adopted in this paper to extract island
thematic information. For multi-source，multi-resolution data and multi-temporal high resolution optical data，different
strategies were adopted to detect small objects and eliminate false information. The experiment results show that the proposed
methods give a fine performance in both recognition capability and recognition accuracy.
The increase of various impervious land surfaces constitutes one of the main features in urban development, which
results in serious adverse impacts on regional environment. In this study, a new methodology was developed to model urban land
imperviousness based on multi-spectral features by using SPOT image. The results show that the combination of multi-spectral
features can efficiently predict land imperviousness. The significant relations between land imperviousness and SPOT based
spectral features can reach 0.818 (p<0.001). The distribution pattern of urban imperviousness was extracted based on the
developed impervious index and object-oriented classification. The results show that more than 70% lands of the city center are
estimated as being of high or middle imperviousness. The average size of these impervious patches is large with a heterogeneous
and fragmented distribution pattern. The tests on scale impacts show that the accuracy of surface imperviousness derived from the
lower spatial resolution is higher than that from the high spatial resolution image. Accordingly, the impervious surface patterns
are obviously different.
It is very important to immediately and accurately acquire LUCC information after “5•12” Earthquake for disaster
mitigation，post-disaster reconstruction and restoration of the ecological environment. Remote Sensing images are characterized
by a wide range of information，timeliness and rapidness in LUCC information extraction. Traditional methods in LUCC information
extraction from remote sensing images often take the overall area as a study target,classify the images and acquire the
information directly. Nevertheless, these methods are liable to ignore the influence of topography, geological structure and
other background factors on the classification results. The solution lies in dividing the image into sub-blocks，sub-block
classification and comprehensive analysis based on geographic and geological environment. In this paper, Dujiang Dam as the study
area was divided into four blocks: plain district (Ⅰ)，middle-mountain district (Ⅱ)，middle and high mountain district (Ⅲ) and
high mountain district (Ⅳ) based on the distribution characteristics of geological structures and landform development patterns.
ISODATA method was used for non-supervised classification in District I, maximum likelihood (ML) classification method for
supervised classification was used in DistrictⅡ and Ⅲ, and man-machine interactive interpretation method for classification was
used in District Ⅳ. The results show that the classification method based on the division of geographic and geological
environment is efficient and precise.
With the zone of oasis and deserts in the Manias River basin as the study object, the authors used different periods of TM data to analyze the patio-temporal features of land desertification at a small scale during the period of 2000~2008, and then calculated indexes of wind-eroded land desertification by using the multi-source information compounding method based on the MODIS data products (NDVI, Albode, LST). Meanwhile, on the basis of the TM land desertification monitoring results, land desertification indexes were processed at different levels, and an assessment model for land desertification monitoring was built approximately. It is shown that, in the past ten years, desertification land in the periphery area has not changed remarkably, while desertification land in the interior of the basin has experienced considerable change, which seems largely caused by local land cultivation or salinization. The experimental results show that a precision of 91.25% can be reached in quantitative assessment of land desertification.
Three temporal remote sensing images were used as the main sources of information. The images were processed in combination with field investigation. The results show that soil salinization of the land area had increased from 1973 to 1990，and then declined from 1990 to 2005； the extent of land salinization had increased from 1973 to 1990，and then decreased from 1990 to 2005. Land salinization is distributed around the low-lying areas of the Kaidu River, lakesides and Qingshui Drainage，Quhui Drainage and Wushitala Drainage on the north of the Bosten Lake. The land salinization was closely related to topography, groundwater and arid climatic conditions. Human agricultural activities have also played an important role in soil salinization.
Spectral reflectance characteristics of rock，soil and vegetation are analyzed based on field data，and a new method
for studying the geometric structure and spatial relationship of typical objects in the spectral feature space is put forward. In
addition, the distribution pattern and relation of typical objects in the spectral feature space within medium vegetation covered
mineral alteration areas are summarized. These conclusions serve as the scientific basis for mineral alteration information
extraction and are also useful to improving the method for extracting mineral alteration information.
This paper deals with the land cover classification of the Hongsipu Irrigation Area in Ningxia in 1989 based on remote
sensing techniques, serving as a benchmark for the study of the development zones. Reference end-members were used as the
characteristics of classification with which the classification function was stable and the results of classification were easily
to explain. The results show that the overall accuracy of maximum likelihood classification based on abundance maps derived from
the decomposition of mixed pixels is 77.53%. Compared with the maximum likelihood classification based on original image, the
overall accuracy is raised by 9.8%. Therefore, the combination of the linear spectral mixture decomposition model and the maximum
likelihood classification constitutes a good classification method. In order to improve the classification accuracy, this paper
makes a post-processing on the classification results to meet the actual demand.
In this paper, the wetland in Hexi Corridor was dynamically monitored by remote sensing technology using four different
temporal remote sensing data. The results show that the area of the wetland was 14 132.38 km2 in 1973, 13 299.44 km2 in 1990, 12
519.88 km2 in 2000, and 12 312.38 km2 in 2006. In the past 30 years, the reduced area amounted to 1 820.00 km2, which occupied
12.88% of the total area, with the dynamic degree being -0.39%. Natural wetland has been reduced continuously at an accelerating
speed, with swamp reduced most significantly. Meanwhile, the area of man-made wetland has steadily increased, especially in
recent years. The number and density of wetland patches have increased, and the fragmentation degree now is higher than that in
the past. The diversity index and evenness index have increased continuously, the difference between the proportions of various
wetlands have decreased, and the distribution wetlands tends to become uniform. Temperature, precipitation, uplift of the Tibetan
plateau and other natural factors seem to be the important causes for wetland change in Hexi Corridor. In addition, human
activities have undoubtedly aggravated such a tendency.
The urban border area is consistently in a dynamic change, and the management of land use change in such an area is
the key to coordinating urbanization with farmland protection. Based on the method of comparison after classification and taking
different time-based high-resolution remote sensing images as information sources, the authors extracted land change information
of 1994-2002 from the urban border areas of Shijiazhuang City. Based on an analysis of urban border land use change, the authors
put forward some proposals on the improvement of the urban border land-use management in Shijiazhuang City in future.
The distribution of natural marine hydrocarbon seepage has great significance for the early stage offshore petroleum
exploration. In this paper, a satellite synchronous observation experiment was made.
oil slick was made with machine oil and imaged by RadarSAT-2 SAR data after 14 minutes. Some conclusions have been reached: under
a certain suitable sea condition, it is possible for SAR data with resolution of 3 meters to detect oil slick with the thickness
of several micron meters, and there is 5 dB relative damping on sea surface wave in this case; SAR measurements can further
confirm the influence of wind and current condition on the evolution of oil slick.
The middle Shiyang River valley with a sensitive ecological environment was chosen as the study area. First of all,
land use/land cover information was extracted by using multi-temporal and multi-source remote sensing image. Then the landscape
change tendency, change area, change rate and specific conversion type were studied quantitatively through the transfer matrix
calculation. Through extracting characteristics of landscape pattern indexes, the regional pattern of landscape ecology and
landscape heterogeneity were analyzed. Finally, the driving factors for landscape pattern change were investigated. This study is
likely to deepen the scientific understanding of the ecological environment in the middle Shiyang River valley and can promote
the comprehensive management of Shiyang River Basin, thus having both scientific significance and practical significance.
This paper used Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve as the research object for salt marsh vegetation classification based
on Landsat TM image. According to such image preprocessing measures as image geometric correction and subset image and on the
basis of analyses of Landsat TM remotely sensed images integrated with field survey and other studies of spatio-temporal dynamics
of Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve, this paper confirmed the species of the vegetation in this area. The authors used knowledge
engineer to classify the vegetation, built knowledge base on the basis of vegetation spectral information and presented a
vegetation classification method based on the spectral information. The overall precision of the vegetation classification method
based on knowledge engineer is 92.35%, and the kappa coefficient is 0.907 2. The precision is higher than the overall precision
of the vegetation classification based on unsupervised classification and supervised classification (maximum likelihood): the
overall precisions of unsupervised classification and supervised classification are respectively 86.92% and 90.10%. The result
shows that the vegetation classification method can classify and discriminate vegetation effectively and the precision is higher
than that of other methods. The vegetation classification method provides a theoretical foundation and effective method for
automatic extraction of vegetation.
On the basis of remote sensing investigation and monitoring of multiple targets of mineral resources exploitation and
with the RapidEye satellite images of the Hongge magnetite-Lala copper ore district as an example, the authors deeply studied the
feasibility of the application of RapidEye satellite images in 1
∶50 000 remote sensing survey for mine exploitation. Viewed from the geometric correction accuracy，image composite processing
and interpretation criteria of RapidEye satellite images, such images can meet the needs of 1∶50 000 remote sensing survey for
mine exploitation and remarkably enhance the real time of 1∶50 000 remote sensing survey for mine exploitation.
Based on virtual earth platform exemplified by Google Earth, this paper gives a tentative discussion on its application
in such aspects as the preparation of tourism planning information, the survey and evaluation of tourism resources, the space-
assisted analysis, the simplification of the 3D virtual roaming, the strengthening of new ideas of planning, and the
collaboration of experts and public participation, in the hope of providing references for the use of tourism planning