Please wait a minute...
Remote Sensing for Natural Resources    2021, Vol. 33 Issue (4) : 162-172     DOI: 10.6046/zrzyyg.2020423
Coupling and coordination relationships between urbanization and ecological environment along the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal
MENG Dan1,2,3(), LIU Lingtong1,2,3, GONG Huili1,2,3, LI Xiaojuan1,2,3, JIANG Bowu1,2,3
1. College of Resources Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
2. Base of the State Key Laboratory of Urban Environmental Process and Digital Modeling, Beijing 100048, China
3. Beijing Laboratory of Water Resources Security, Beijing 100048, China
Download: PDF(4031 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks    

This paper aims to study the coupling and coordination relationships between the urbanization and ecological environment in the areas along the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal from 1992 to 2018. To this end, it builds the remote sensing ecological index (RSEI) based on Landsat data to characterize the quality of the ecological environment and establishes the compounded night light index (CNLI) based on DMSP/OLS and NPP/VIIRS nighttime light (NTL) data to characterize the urbanization level. Meanwhile, it determines the coordinated development pattern between the urbanization and ecological environment in the area by applying a coupling and coordination degree model and its classification principles. The results are as follows. ① The urban development level along the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal is characterized by spatial imbalance. It is high in the southern and northern areas but low in the middle areas. During 1992—2018, the number of cities with a high urbanization level increased year by year. The periods from 1992 to 2002, from 2002 to 2013, and from 2013 to 2018 witnessed the slow development, the accelerated development, and the steady improvement of urbanization, respectively. ② During 1992—2018, the RSEI values were all greater than 0.4, indicating a high-quality ecological environment. The ecological environment in the areas along the canal was relatively stable from 1992 to 2002, improved from 2002 to 2007, and deteriorated from 2007 to 2018 to a certain degree. ③ During 1992—2018, the coupling and coordination degree between urbanization and the ecological environment increased first and then decreased. In terms of the coordinated development type, urbanization lagged behind the ecological environment firstly and then the latter gradually lagged behind the former, indicating that the quality of the ecological environment needs further improving. That is, it is necessary to strengthen the protection of the ecological environment while developing the economy along the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal.

Keywords Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal      urbanization      eco-environment      coupling coordination     
ZTFLH:  TP79  
Issue Date: 23 December 2021
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
Articles by authors
Lingtong LIU
Huili GONG
Xiaojuan LI
Cite this article:   
Dan MENG,Lingtong LIU,Huili GONG, et al. Coupling and coordination relationships between urbanization and ecological environment along the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal[J]. Remote Sensing for Natural Resources, 2021, 33(4): 162-172.
URL:     OR
Fig.1  Sketch map of study area and scope
数据 时间 获取途径
Landsat TM 1992年、1997年、2002年、2007年 地理空间数据云http: //
Landsat OLI 2013年、2018年
DMSP/OLS 1992年、1997年、2002年、2007年、2012年、2013年 美国国家海洋和大气管理局https: //
NPP/VIIRS 2012年、2013年、2018年
建成区数据 2018年 中国城市基本土地利用类别测绘http: //
统计数据 2018年 2018年沿线城市统计年鉴
Tab.1  List of the research data
协调度水平 亚类
系统指数值对比 子类别 类型
0.8<D≤1 高度
G(y)-F(x)>0.1 城市化滞后 Ⅴ1
|G(y)-F(x)|≤0.1 系统均衡发展 Ⅴ2
G(y)-F(x)<-0.1 生态环境滞后 Ⅴ3
0.6<D≤0.8 中度
G(y)-F(x)>0.1 城市化滞后 Ⅳ1
|G(y)-F(x)|≤0.1 系统均衡发展 Ⅳ2
G(y)-F(x)<-0.1 生态环境滞后 Ⅳ3
0.4<D≤0.6 濒临
G(y)-F(x)>0.1 城市化滞后 Ⅲ1
|G(y)-F(x)|≤0.1 系统均衡发展 Ⅲ2
G(y)-F(x)<-0.1 生态环境滞后 Ⅲ3
0.2<D≤0.4 中度
G(y)-F(x)>0.1 城市化滞后 Ⅱ1
|G(y)-F(x)|≤0.1 系统均衡发展 Ⅱ2
G(y)-F(x)<-0.1 生态环境滞后 Ⅱ3
0<D≤0.2 严重
G(y)-F(x)>0.1 城市化滞后 Ⅰ1
|G(y)-F(x)|≤0.1 系统均衡发展 Ⅰ2
G(y)-F(x)<-0.1 生态环境滞后 Ⅰ3
Tab.2  Classification principles of coupling and coordination types between urbanization and eco-environment
Fig.2  Map of night light intensity from 1992 to 2018
城市 非农人
0.4 0.4 0.2
北京 0.86 0.99 0.24 0.79 0.86
天津 0.83 0.99 0.26 0.78 0.81
廊坊 0.59 0.90 0.26 0.65 0.60
沧州 0.52 0.92 0.2 0.62 0.41
德州 0.56 0.91 0.13 0.61 0.53
聊城 0.60 0.90 0.16 0.63 0.42
济南 0.72 0.96 0.21 0.71 0.70
泰安 0.61 0.92 0.11 0.63 0.59
济宁 0.59 0.90 0.11 0.62 0.63
枣庄 0.6 0.93 0.13 0.64 0.61
徐州 0.65 0.90 0.14 0.65 0.59
宿迁 0.60 0.89 0.13 0.62 0.58
淮安 0.63 0.90 0.12 0.64 0.63
扬州 0.67 0.95 0.17 0.68 0.76
镇江 0.71 0.97 0.22 0.72 0.79
常州 0.89 0.98 0.36 0.82 0.85
无锡 0.76 0.99 0.47 0.79 0.90
苏州 0.76 0.99 0.42 0.78 0.92
嘉兴 0.59 0.97 0.39 0.70 0.76
杭州 0.78 0.98 0.11 0.73 0.87
Tab.3  Comprehensive urbanization index of each city in 2018
Fig.3  The spatial distribution of urbanization levels from 1992 to 2018
Fig.4  Map of RSEI from 1992 to 2018
指标 1992年 1997年 2002年 2007年 2013年 2018年
平均值 0.62 0.59 0.60 0.73 0.63 0.63
标准差 0.24 0.32 0.24 0.25 0.29 0.29
Tab.4  Overall eco-environment evaluation results of the study area from 1992 to 2018
Fig.5  Spatial evolution map of city-scale eco-environment quality from 1992 to 2018
Fig.6  Coordination between urbanization and eco-environment of various cities from 1992 to 2018
Fig.7  Evolution of the type of coupling and coordination between urbanization and eco-environment from 1992 to 2108
Fig.8  Evolution of the subtypes of coupling and coordination between urbanization and eco-environment from 1992 to 2108
[1] Wu G H, Wu P F. Research on the influencing factors of China’s resources and environment to urbanization based on computer[J]. Journal of Physics:Conference Series, 2020,1549:022098.
doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1549/2/022098 url:
[2] 陈晓红, 周宏浩. 城市化与生态环境关系研究热点与前沿的图谱分析[J]. 地理科学进展, 2018,37(9):1171-1185.
doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2018.09.002
[2] Chen X H, Zhou H H. Research hotspots and prospects of urbanization and ecological environment relationship based on visual knowledge mapping[J]. Progress in Geography, 2018,37(9):1171-1185.
[3] 方宁, 张茜, 杨东旭, 等. 湖南省生态文明建设与城镇化时空演变及耦合协调研究[J]. 地域研究与开发, 2020,39(6):59-64.
[3] Fang N, Zhang Q, Yang D X, et al. Spatial-temporal evolution and coupling coordination between ecological civilization construction and urbanization in Hunan Province[J]. Areal Research and Development, 2020,39(6):59-64.
[4] 胡曼. 城市生态环境变化及其驱动因素时间序列分析——以江宁为例[D]. 南京:南京林业大学, 2017.
[4] Hu M. Time Series analysis on the changes of suburban eco-environment and its driving factors:A study case of Jiangning[D]. Nanjing:Nanjing Forestry University, 2017.
[5] 梁龙武, 王振波, 方创琳, 等. 京津冀城市群城市化与生态环境时空分异及协同发展格局[J]. 生态学报, 2019,39(4):1212-1225.
[5] Liang L W, Wang Z B, Fang C L, et al. Spatiotemporal differentiation and coordinated development pattern of urbanization and the ecological environment of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2019,39(4):1212-1225.
[6] Wang Y F, Geng Q J, Si X H, et al. Coupling and coordination analysis of urbanization,economy and environment of Shandong Province,China[J]. Environment Development and Sustainability, 2020(4):1-19.
[7] 厉芳婷, 张过, 贾继鹏. 基于地理国情数据的城市扩张和生态格局分析——以武汉市为例[J]. 测绘通报, 2020(11):93-98.
[7] Li F T, Zhang G, Jia J P. Analysis on urban expansion and ecological pattern based on geographical condition data:Taking Wuhan as an example[J]. Bulletin of Surveying and Mapping, 2020(11):93-98.
[8] 方创琳, 周成虎, 顾朝林, 等. 特大城市群地区城镇化与生态环境交互耦合效应解析的理论框架及技术路径[J]. 地理学报, 2016,71(4):531-550.
doi: 10.11821/dlxb201604001
[8] Fang C L, Zhou C H, Gu C L, et al. Theoretical analysis of the interaction coupled between urbanization and eco-environment in mega-city agglomerations[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2016,71(4):531-550.
[9] 贺清云, 李慧平, 欧阳晓. 长江中游城市群城市化与生态环境耦合协调分析及模拟预测[J]. 生态科学, 2020,39(2):182-190
[9] He Q Y, Li H P, Ouyang X. Analyzing and predicting the urbanization and eco-environment coupling and coordination of the middle reaches of Yangtze River urban agglomerations[J]. Ecological Science, 2020,39(2):182-190.
[10] 王少剑, 方创琳, 王洋. 京津冀地区城市化与生态环境交互耦合关系定量测度[J]. 生态学报, 2015,35(7):2244-2254.
[10] Wang S J, Fang C L, Wang Y. Quantitative investigation of the interactive coupling relationship between urbanization and eco-environment[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2015,35(7):2244-2254.
[11] Li Y F, Li Y, Zhou Y, et al. Investigation of a coupling model of coordination between urbanization and the environment[J]. Journal of Environmental Management, 2012,98:127-133.
doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.12.025 url:
[12] 廖李红, 戴文远, 黄华富, 等. 基于DMSP/OLS和Landsat数据的城市化与生态环境耦合协调分析[J]. 福建师范大学学报(自然科学版), 2018,34(6):94-103.
[12] Liao L H, Dai W Y, Huang H F, et al. Coupling coordination analysis of urbanization and eco-environment system in Jinjiang using Landsat series data and DMSP/OLS nighttime light data[J]. Journal of Fujian Normal University(Natural Science Edition), 2018,34(6):94-103.
[13] Wang L, Li W J, Wang P F, et al. Spatiotemporal characterization of the urban sprawl and its impacts on urban island in China with DMSP/OLS and MODIS measurements[J]. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 2019,138(1-2):293-303.
doi: 10.1007/s00704-019-02822-y url:
[14] 郝蕊芳, 于德永, 刘宇鹏, 等. DMSP/OLS灯光数据在城市化监测中的应用[J]. 北京师范大学学报(自然科学版), 2014,50(4):407-413.
[14] Hao R F, Yu D Y, Liu Y P, et al. Use of DMSP/OLS nighttime light data in urbanization monitor[J]. Journal of Beijing Normal University (Natural Science Edition), 2014,50(4):407-413.
[15] 金平斌, 徐鹏飞. 基于DMSP/OLS夜间灯光数据的城镇化进程及格局研究——以杭州市为例[J]. 国土资源遥感, 2017,29(4):205-213.doi: 10.6046/gtzyyg.2017.04.31.
doi: 10.6046/gtzyyg.2017.04.31
[15] Jin P B, Xu P F. A study of urbanization progress and spatial pattern using DMSP/OLS nighttime light data:A case study of Hangzhou City[J]. Remote Sensing for Land and Resources, 2017,29(4):205-213.doi: 10.6046/gtzyyg.2017.04.31.
doi: 10.6046/gtzyyg.2017.04.31
[16] 陈颖彪, 郑子豪, 吴志峰, 等. 夜间灯光遥感数据应用综述和展望[J]. 地理科学进展, 2019,38(2):205-223.
doi: 10.18306/dlkxjz.2019.02.005
[16] Chen Y B, Zheng Z H, Wu Z F, et al. Review and prospect of application of nighttime light remote sensing data[J]. Progress In Geography, 2019,38(2):205-223.
[17] Wu Y, Jiang M, Chang Z, et al. Does China’s urban development satisfy Zipf’s Law? A multiscale perspective from the NPP-VIIRS nighttime light data[J]. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020,17(4):1-26.
doi: 10.3390/ijerph17010001 url:
[18] Liang H D, Guo Z Y, Wu J P, et al. GDP spatialization in Ningbo City based on NPP/VIIRS night-time light and auxiliary data using random forest regression[J]. Advance in Space Research, 2020,65(1):481-493.
doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2019.09.035 url:
[19] Ma T, Yin Z, Li B L, et al. Quantitative estimation of the velocity of urbanization in China using nighttime luminosity data[J]. Remote Sensing, 2016,8(2):1-13.
doi: 10.3390/rs8010001 url:
[20] 丛康林, 董超, 薄鑫宇, 等. 基于夜光遥感的山东省城市时空格局演化分析[J]. 测绘地理信息, 2021,46(5):78-82.
[20] Cong K L, Dong C, Bo X Y, et al. Evolution analysis of urban spatiotemporal patterns in Shandong Province based on nighttime light remote sensing[J]. Journal of Geomatics, 2021,46(5):78-82.
[21] 徐梦洁, 陈黎, 刘焕金, 等. 基于DMSP/OLS夜间灯光数据的长江三角洲地区城市化格局与过程研究[J]. 国土资源遥感, 2011(3):106-112.doi: 10.6046/gtzyyg.2011.03.19.
doi: 10.6046/gtzyyg.2011.03.19
[21] Xu M J, Chen L, Liu H J, et al. Pattern and process of urbanization in the Yangtze Delta based on DMSP/OLS data[J]. Remote Sensing for Land and Resources, 2011(3):106-112.doi: 10.6046/gtzyyg.2011.03.19.
doi: 10.6046/gtzyyg.2011.03.19
[22] 徐涵秋. 城市遥感生态指数的创建及其应用[J]. 生态学报, 2013,33(24):7853-7862.
[22] Xu H Q. A remote sensing urban ecological index and its application[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2013,33(24):7853-7862
[23] 徐涵秋, 施婷婷, 王美雅, 等. 雄安新区地表覆盖变化及其新区规划的生态响应预测[J]. 生态学报, 2017,37(19):6289-6301.
[23] Xu H Q, Shi T T, Wang M Y, et al. Land cover changes in the Xiong’an New Area and a prediction of ecological response to forthcoming regional planning[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2017,37(19):6289-6301.
[24] 王东升, 王小磊, 雷泽勇. 基于遥感生态指数的阜新市生态质量评估[J]. 生态科学, 2020,39(3):88-94.
[24] Wang D S, Wang X L, Lei Z Y. Ecological change assessment of Fuxin based on remote sensing ecological index[J]. Ecological Science, 2020,39(3):88-94.
[25] 杨江燕, 吴田, 潘肖燕, 等. 基于遥感生态指数的雄安新区生态质量评估[J]. 应用生态学报, 2019,30(1):277-284.
[25] Yang J Y, Wu T, Pan X Y, et al. Ecological quality assessment of Xiongan New Area based on remote sensing ecological index[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 2019,30(1):277-284.
[26] 杨静. 京杭大运河生态环境变迁研究[D]. 南京:南京林业大学, 2012.
[26] Yang J. Time series analysis on the changes of suburban eco-environment and its driving factors:A study case of Jiangning[D]. Nanjing:Nanjing Forestry University, 2012.
[27] 张金池. 京杭大运河生态环境变迁[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 2012.
[27] Zhang J C. Changes of ecological environment along the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal[M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2012.
[28] 黄杰. 将建设“中国大运河经济带”上升为国家战略的思考[J]. 扬州大学学报(人文社会科学版), 2017(4):16-21.
[28] Huang J. On escalating the construction of “Grand Canal Economic Belt” to national strategy[J]. Journal of Yangzhou University (Humanities and Social Sciences Edition), 2017(4):16-21.
[29] 吴欣. 中国大运河蓝皮书:中国大运河发展报告(2018)[R]. 北京: 社会科学文献出版社, 2018.
[29] Wu X. Blue book of China Grand Canal:Annual report on the development of China Grand Canal(2018)[R]. Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press(CHINA), 2018.
[30] Li X, Li D, Xu H, et al. Intercalibration between DMSP/OLS and VIIRS night-time light images to evaluate city light dynamics of Syria’s major human settlement during Syrian Civil War[J]. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 2017,38(21):5934-5951.
doi: 10.1080/01431161.2017.1331476 url:
[31] Zheng Q M, Weng Q H, Wang K. Developing a new cross-sensor calibration model for DMSP-OLS and Suomi-NPP VIIRS night-light imageries[J]. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2019,153:36-47.
doi: 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2019.04.019 url:
[32] 陈晋, 卓莉, 史培军, 等. 基于DMSP/OLS数据的中国城市化过程研究——反映区域城市化水平的灯光指数的构建[J]. 遥感学报, 2003(3):168-175,241.
[32] Chen J, Zhuo L, Shi P J, et al. The study on urbanization process in China based on DMSP/OLS data:Development of a light index for urbanization level estimation[J]. Journal of Remote Sensing, 2003(3):168-175,241.
[33] 张京祥, 刘雨平. 沿京杭大运河地区的空间发展——以京杭大运河扬州段为例[J]. 经济地理, 2008(1):1-5.
[33] Zhang J X, Liu Y P. Research on the spatial development of areas along the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal-with the case study of Yangzhou part of Beijing-Hangzhou Canal[J]. Economic Geography, 2008(1):1-5.
[34] 刘辉, 狄乾斌. 南水北调东线“一期”工程对京杭大运河沿线城市经济发展的影响分析——基于合成控制法的实证[J]. 资源开发与市场, 2020,36(11):1185-1191.
[34] Liu H, Di Q B. Analysis on the influence of the first phase of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project on the economic development of cities along the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal evidence based on synthetic control method[J]. Resource Development & Market, 2020,36(11):1185-1191.
[35] 李晓琴, 孙丹峰, 张凤荣. 基于遥感的北京山区植被覆盖景观格局动态分析[J]. 山地学报, 2003(3):272-280.
[35] Li X Q, Sun D F, Zhang F R. Landscape pattern analysis on change in the fraction of green vegetation based on remotely sensed data in Beijing mountainous area[J]. Journal of Mountain Science, 2003(3):272-280.
[36] 刘子潇, 颜悦. 天津地区植被覆盖度的遥感估算及其动态变化研究[J]. 城市勘测, 2019(3):115-120.
[36] Liu Z X, Yan Y. Study on vegetation coverage and dynamic changes in Tianjin by remote sensing method[J]. Urban Geotechnical Investigation & Surveying, 2019(3):115-120.
[1] ZHAO Anzhou, ZHANG Xiangrui, XIANG Kaizheng, LIU Xianfeng, ZHANG Jinghan. Analyzing the spatio-temporal evolution patterns of urbanization in the Loess Plateau based on night light data and statistical data[J]. Remote Sensing for Natural Resources, 2023, 35(3): 253-263.
[2] WANG Xiaolong, YAN Haowen, ZHOU Liang, ZHANG Liming, DANG Xuewei. Using SVM classify Landsat image to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of main urban expansion analysis in Democratic People’s Republic of Korea[J]. Remote Sensing for Land & Resources, 2020, 32(4): 163-171.
[3] MUHADAISI Ariken, ZHANG Fei, LIU Kang, AYINUER Yushanjiang. Urban ecological environment evaluation based on Tiangong-2 and Landsat8 data[J]. Remote Sensing for Land & Resources, 2020, 32(4): 209-218.
[4] LIU Hui, QI Zengxiang, HUANG Fuqiang. Spatio-temporal difference and correlation of urbanization with avian habitats in Dongting Lake area[J]. Remote Sensing for Land & Resources, 2020, 32(3): 191-199.
[5] Jiaqi ZUO, Zegen WANG, Jinhu BIAN, Ainong LI, Guangbin LEI, Zhengjian ZHANG. A review of research on remote sensing for ground impervious surface percentage retrieval[J]. Remote Sensing for Land & Resources, 2019, 31(3): 20-28.
[6] Hongmin ZHANG, Yanfang ZHANG, Mao TIAN, Chunling WU. Dynamic monitoring of eco-environment quality changes based on PCA:A case study of urban area of Baoji City[J]. Remote Sensing for Land & Resources, 2018, 30(1): 203-209.
[7] JIN Pingbin, XU Pengfei. A study of urbanization progress and spatial pattern using DMSP/OLS nighttime light data:A case study of Hangzhou City[J]. REMOTE SENSING FOR LAND & RESOURCES, 2017, 29(4): 205-213.
[8] SHAO Qiufang, PENG Peihao, HUANG Jie, LIU Zhi, SUN Xiaofei, SHAO Huaiyong. Monitoring eco-environmental vulnerability in Anning River Basin in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River using remote sensing techniques[J]. REMOTE SENSING FOR LAND & RESOURCES, 2016, 28(2): 175-181.
[9] ZHANG Yazhou, XIE Xiaoping. Relationship between urbanization and ecological vulnerability in the Nansi Lake area based on RS and GIS[J]. REMOTE SENSING FOR LAND & RESOURCES, 2014, 26(4): 151-156.
[10] LUAN Zhuoran, ZHOU Zhiyong, LU Li, ZHANG Zhike, LI Bin, YU Qian. Remote sensing survey of brick clay exploitation situation and eco-environment of central Hebei (Jizhong) plain[J]. REMOTE SENSING FOR LAND & RESOURCES, 2013, 25(4): 143-146.
[11] REN Jin-hua, WU Shao-hua, ZHOU Sheng-lu, LIN Chen. Advances in Remote Sensing Research on Urban Impervious Surface[J]. REMOTE SENSING FOR LAND & RESOURCES, 2012, 24(4): 8-15.
[12] YANG Bin, GU Xiu-mei, JIANG Xiao-peng. The Application of AHP and GIS to the Analysis of Urbanization Spatial Development:A Case Study of Zitong County, a Low Mountain Hilly Old Revolutionary Base Area[J]. REMOTE SENSING FOR LAND & RESOURCES, 2012, 24(4): 169-174.
[13] XU Meng-jie, CHEN Li, LIU Huan-jin, WANG Hui. Pattern and Process of Urbanization in the Yangtze Delta Based on DMSP/OLS Data[J]. REMOTE SENSING FOR LAND & RESOURCES, 2011, 23(3): 106-112.
[14] LI Zhi-Hua, GAO Zhi-Qiang, GAO Wei, SHI Run-He, LIU Chao-Shun. Researches on Changes of Urbanization of Shanghai and its Ecologic Environment Based on MODIS Time Series in the Last Decade[J]. REMOTE SENSING FOR LAND & RESOURCES, 2011, 23(2): 124-129.
[15] LI Zhen, HUANG Hai-Jun. Land Use and Land Cover Change of the Coastal Zone Around Jiaozhou Bay[J]. REMOTE SENSING FOR LAND & RESOURCES, 2010, 22(4): 71-76.
Full text



Copyright © 2017 Remote Sensing for Natural Resources
Support by Beijing Magtech