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Remote Sensing for Natural Resources    2022, Vol. 34 Issue (3) : 173-183     DOI: 10.6046/zrzyyg.2021325
Spatiotemporal response of wetland landscape to urban expansion in Phnom Penh, Cambodia determined based on remote sensing
DONG Li1,2(), AN Na3, SUN Genyun1,2, ZHANG Aizhu1,2(), JIAO Zhijun1,2, DING Sunjinyan1,2, GE Jie4
1. College of Oceanography and Space Informatics, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China
2. Laboratory for Marine Mineral Resources, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China
3. China Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing Center for Natural Resources, Bejing 100083, China
4. Sichuan Institute of Land Science and Technology, Sichuan Center of Satellite Application Technology, Chengdu 610045, China
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Phnom Penh is a typical city in the Lancang-Mekong River basin. It has rapidly developed and expanded under the Belt and Road Initiative and has continuously invaded its surrounding wetlands. To fully understand the response of the wetland landscape to the urban expansion in Phnom Penh, this study extracted the 2000—2020 land use data of this city from five phases of Landsat images, then analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of the changes in wetland landscapes and the land use for urban expansion from the aspects of area change, spatial distribution, change intensity, and landscape pattern, and finally established the quantitative relationships between the wetland landscape and the land use for urban expansion using the correlation coefficient. The results are as follows. The construction land and bare land in Phnom Penh had expanded outwards from the center, and their sizes had constantly increased during 2000—2020, especially during 2001—2005. Their spatial structures were increasingly concentrated, and the shapes were more complex. The wetland area continuously decreased, and the swamps and paddy fields were converted to construction land and bare land intensively. In particular, swamps with an area of 124.06 km2 were converted to construction land and bare land. In other words, about one-third of the swamps disappeared. The wetland landscape tended to be distributed in a fragmented and regularized manner. Its connectivity degree decreased and its ecological functions such as lowering the temperature, increasing the humidity, and regulating and storing floodwater were weakened. These changes in the wetland in Phnom Penh are significantly related to urban expansion, with a correlation coefficient in terms of area greater than 0.97 (p < 0.01). There is also a strong correlation between the intensity of the urban expansion and the wetland landscape pattern. To maintain the sustainable development of the city, it is necessary to reasonably plan the spatial layout in the process of urban expansion. The urban expansion should be conducted mainly through intensive development, paddy fields should be utilized first if necessary, and the occupation and destruction of swamps and wetlands should be avoided as much as possible.

Keywords wetland      urban expansion      landscape pattern      Phnom Penh, Cambodia     
ZTFLH:  P237  
Corresponding Authors: ZHANG Aizhu     E-mail:;
Issue Date: 21 September 2022
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Genyun SUN
Zhijun JIAO
Sunjinyan DING
Jie GE
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Li DONG,Na AN,Genyun SUN, et al. Spatiotemporal response of wetland landscape to urban expansion in Phnom Penh, Cambodia determined based on remote sensing[J]. Remote Sensing for Natural Resources, 2022, 34(3): 173-183.
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Fig.1  Image of the study area
影像时间 传感器 空间分辨率/m
2001.06.01 TM 30
2005.01.19 TM 30
2011.01.20 TM 30
2015.01.15 OLI 30
2020.01.13 OLI 30
Tab.1  Landsat datasets
一级类别 二级类别 训练样本数量
自然湿地 河流 754
湖泊 939
沼泽 2 445
人工湿地 养殖池 293
水田 1 132
非湿地 建设用地 869
裸地 1 260
城市绿地 404
Tab.2  Classification system of landscapes in Phnom Penh
Fig.2  Flowchart
Fig.3  Direction map
景观指数 表达式 数学解释 生态含义
AWMFD A W M F D = i = 1 m j = 1 k 2 l n ( 0.25 C i j ) l n ( a i j ) ( a i j O ) i为斑块类型; m为景观中所有斑块类型的总数目; j为斑块数目; k为某一斑块类型中斑块的总数目; Cij为斑块的周长; aij为斑块的面积; O为景观的总面积 1≤AWMFD≤2,AWMFD越大,缀块形状越复杂
ED E D = j = 1 k e i j O ( 10000 ) eij为斑块的边缘长度 ED≥0,反映了破碎化程度和生境缀块之间的隔离程度,ED越大,湿地景观破碎化越严重
AI A I = g i i m a x g i i ( 100 ) gii为斑块类型i的像素之间的相似邻接数; m a x g i i为最大相似邻接数 0≤AI≤100,AI越大,同一类型的湿地越聚合
Tab.3  Formulas and ecological meanings of landscape metrics
Fig.4  Area change of landscape in the Phnom Penh from 2001 to 2020
Fig.5  Spatial distributions of landscapes in Phnom Penh from 2001 to 2020
景观类型 2001年
河流 养殖池 建设用地 裸地 城市绿地 湖泊 水田 沼泽
2020年 河流 32.508 0 0.006 3 0.436 5 0.018 0 0.000 9 0.103 5 1.211 4 3.045 6
养殖池 0.738 0 0.242 1 0.346 5 0.387 0 0.004 5 0.338 4 1.019 7 1.915 2
建设用地 0.988 2 0.549 0 36.578 7 2.075 4 0.527 4 4.511 7 63.586 8 98.894 1
裸地 0.287 1 0.109 8 1.544 4 0.454 5 0.020 7 1.454 4 24.424 3 22.319 1
城市绿地 0.378 0 0.009 9 0.848 7 0.009 9 0.408 6 0.954 0 0.889 2 2.844 0
湖泊 0.954 0 0.132 3 0.603 0 0.083 7 0.009 0 13.747 5 8.441 1 22.423 5
水田 0.288 9 0.531 0 2.364 3 0.585 0 0.037 8 0.925 2 101.132 1 20.703 6
沼泽 2.089 8 0.267 3 5.124 6 0.529 2 0.264 6 5.675 4 54.060 3 143.232 3
Tab.4  Transfer matrix between the different landscape types in Phnom Penh from 2001 to 2020(km2)
Fig.6  Change intensity of landscape in the Phnom Penh
Fig.7  Change intensity of landscape in different direction
Fig.8  Changes in class-level metrics of landscape types in the Phnom Penh from 2000 to 2020
湿地类型 面积 变化强度 ED AI AWMFD
建设用地 裸地 建设用地 裸地 建设用地 裸地 建设用地 裸地 建设用地 裸地
湖泊 0.841 0.830 0.961* 0.730 0.952* 0.923* 0.408 0.954* -0.937* 0.352
沼泽 -0.99 5 * * -0.996** -0.043 0.032 0.918* 0.889* -0.946* -0.428 0.562 0.741
养殖池 0.977** 0.980** 0.964* 0.969* 0.491 0.412 0.853 0.435 0.978** -0.090
水田 -0.991** 0.978** 0.239 -0.064 0.026 0.122 -0.845 -0.507 -0.269 -0.776
Tab.5  Correlation between wetland and urban expansion land
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